Diabetes Pills Metformin. Rules of Admission. Min and Max Doses
An insulin-resistant type of diabetes mellitus is well treatable, if this issue is properly approached and the right hypoglycemic products are taken. Metformin is the main product for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2.
Main advantages of Metformin:
- It does not increase the blood pressure and the load on the cardiac muscle.
- It does not cause an appearance of an acute or delayed hypoglycemia.
- It reduces the cholesterol level in the blood and the body mass.
- It improves the walls of the blood vessels and their conductivity.
A patient does not experience an absolute deficit of insulin which should be regularly compensated with the help of injection during the diabetes mellitus type 2. Therefore, Metformin is effective during the mono-therapy and only during the worsening of the patient’s condition, insulin injections may be prescribed as an addition to Metformin.
Metformin is released in form of pills (regardless of a manufacturer) in the dose of 500 mg, 850 mg, and 1000 mg. A wide choice of the working doses is due to the fact that every patient needs an individual dose depending on a clinical pattern. This range of the doses allows to select the minimal working daily dose and divide it into 2 or 3 equal parts.
Moreover, the maximal daily dose should be equal to 2,5 g, and the minimal is 500 mg. You should select a dosing, so that it would be within these ranges. If a patient has a high level of glucose in the blood during the use of 2,5 g (2500 mg) Metformin, hypoglycemic drugs from other medical groups are prescribed (for example, medications of Sulfonylurea). If the function of the pancreatic gland is affected, a replacement therapy with insulin injections is prescribed.
But due to the combined medical therapy of diabetes mellitus type 2, a dose of every drug should be reduced. It means that using Metformin and insulin, it is necessary to prescribe the maximal dose of Metformin, and the minimal dose of insulin. A choice is made in favor of the safest medication that may cause the minimal harm for the body.
The Metformin pills should be taken every day during meals, but not more than 3 times per day. every pill should be taken with enough water, so that it will be digested in the gastro-intestinal tract faster.
- Do not take the pill with sweet fizzy drinks, juice, or milk.
The medication should be taken during meals, so that the drug will begin to block the uptake of glucose in the intestine at once. If the pill is taken after meals, in about 1-2 hours, the effect from the use of the therapeutic dose will not be so intensive.
- Metformin should be taken carefully by patient at the age of over 65;
- Metformin may be taken in 2 hours after the physical activity. The use of the pills after the active physical training may cause a development of lactic acidosis;
- Using Metformin, it is necessary to follow a low-carb diet but a patient should consume at least 1000 Kcal within a day. In case of strict diets, the sugar level drops up to the crucial level, and the signs of hypoglycemia appear;
- Metformin is not prescribed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in children under 10.
How Does Metformin Work in the Body? Metformin Action Time
It is today proved that an insulin-resistance is an authentic factor of risk of the cardiovascular diseases (combinations of these pathologies have got the name an insulin-resistant syndrome or X syndrome). It explains the effect of Metformin in a reduction of the development of the cardiovascular diseases.
To know how Metformin acts during diabetes mellitus type 2, it is necessary to find out why the body is not able to utilize glucose.
Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreatic gland. It executes the transport function in our body. All carbohydrates that reach the body with food are split into glucose that goes to the blood. Insulin transfers glucose from the blood to the tissue cells, and this way the body is provided with the energy.
Due to the pathological processes in the body, cells lose the ability to interact with insulin and do not receive the glucose from it. Due to this, glucose is accumulated in the body, and the insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus appears.
As the body tries to synthesize more amount of insulin and effectively transfer the glucose, the cells do not accept it. The excessive amount of insulin is associated with the central obesity (the fat pad in the area of the belly), high level of cholesterol and/or hypertonia. Therefore, most patients with diabetes type 2 have the excessive body weight, various disorders of the lipid metabolism.
The main action of Metformin is its high sensitivity of the tissues to insulin. It means that every molecule of glucose sent by insulin hormone to the cells should be accepted and digested. The action of the drugs of sulfonylurea or injections of the exogenous insulin are directed at the compensation of the insufficient insulin secretion. In case of the insulin-resistance, there is no deficit of insulin, and therefore these drugs are ineffective but also dangerous because they may cause hypoglycemia.
Metformin may be only used as the drug to reduce the insulin-resistance if the insulin secretion is adequate. The advantage of Metformin as the initial drug for the treatment of diabetes consists in a moderate reduction of the body weight and an improvement of the lipid balance. It happens because the pancreatic gland stops synthesizing the excessive amount of insulin during the inhibition of the insulin-resistance, and all metabolic processes are improved.
It is clinically proved that patients have a lower glucose level, as well as insulin in the blood in 3 months after the use of Metformin.
To increase the effect, Metformin reduces a production of glucose in the liver and increases an utilization of it by the muscle tissue. It means that it affects not only glucose which has been received outside, but also the internal secretion of glucose that is required for the normal work of the body.
However, to reduce the load on the pancreatic gland, the intestine and liver, Metformin just blocks the uptake of some amount of carbs during eating. Due to this, these carbohydrates are not transformed into glucose and are excreted, and the patient’s body easily works with the amount of glucose that it gets.
Metformin for Obesity. Does Metformin Help with Weight Loss?
Diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity are complementary pathologies. About 80% of people with obesity have diabetes mellitus, and on the contrary.
As it was mentioned before, the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and a sudden increase of the insulin synthesis may lead to the development of the obesity. But it often happens otherwise, and diabetes mellitus type 2 appears in patients who suffer from the obesity.
«Women with waist circumference more than 80 cm and men with waist circumference more than 94 cm have the high risks of diabetes»
The visceral fat is accumulated in the area of waist and belly, and the fatty tissue is accumulated around the organs of the abdominal cavity. Fat coats all internal organs and breaks metabolic processes. Due to the excessive fatty tissue, human has hormones of the fatty tissue adipokines that favor the increase of the insulin-resistance.
Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the work of the liver and pancreatic gland, and the functioning of the intestine and the body mass index for the effective treatment of diabetes mellitus. If the body mass index is more than 30, the treatment of diabetes mellitus is complicated, and patients will manage to stop the growth of the glucose concentration in the blood. In order to reduce the sugar level in the blood, it is necessary to get rid of the fat.
Therefore, Metformin is the most effective and universal product for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
The main effect of Metformin during obesity is:
- Slowing down the absorption of the glucose in the small bowel;
- Reducing the fatty acid oxidation;
- Accelerating the glucose utilization;
- Increasing the uptake of the glucose by muscles.
Metformin stimulates metabolic processes in the body, as a result of which the muscles actively uptake the energy in the form of glucose. As the cells better take the activity of insulin, the glucose is quickly transferred into the tissues and its deficit appears. This small deficit is covered by means of the fat that is split to cover the energetic needs.
Besides the improvement of metabolism, Metformin also prevents the absorption of carbohydrates in the intestine that will be in the excessive amount, and that may cause the increase of the fatty tissue.
However, the action of Metformin is inferior to many drugs for the weight loss. The main effect of this medication is to reduce the glucose in the blood. So, to achieve the result and reduce the excessive fat, it is necessary to follow the low-carb diet. It will help to reduce the body mass and accelerate the lowering of the sugar level in the blood.