- Levels of glucose in men and women in the blood
- General rules for donating blood for sugar
- Symptomatic of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes symptoms
- What to do if the sugar and cholesterol levels in the blood are increased?
- How to reduce sugar and cholesterol levels? Metformin for low blood sugar
- How to maintain the lipid balance in the norm?
Levels of Glucose in Men and Women in the Blood
Glucose plays an important role in providing the tissues of the body with the energy and in internal respiration. A long term increase or decrease of its content leads to the serious consequences that threaten health and human life.
A control of glycaemia (a content of the glucose in the blood) allows to detect the pathological changes at early stage and take measures to prevent the development of diabetes mellitus in time. Glycaemia is a dynamic index which varies within a day.
The normal levels of the glucose in the blood for people without diabetes and non-pregnant women are as follows:
- On an empty stomach: 3,5 mmol/L – 5,5 mmol/L;
- In 2 hours after meals: less than 7,8 mmol/L.
If the glucose level is within these ranges, there are no issues for concern. In rare cases, taking the blood test on an empty stomach, people may have 0,6 mmol/L. It is not abnormal and depends on many factors. For instance, a person has not hold 8-hour-break from the food consumption before taking the test.
The healthy body is able to reduce the glucose level in the blood within a day by means of the synthesis of a great amount of insulin. However, if the indices of the glucose in the blood on an empty stomach exceed 6,5 mmol/L, it tells that the body is not able to cope with the high glucose level and there are some abnormalities.
If the glucose level varies within 6,0-6,7 mmol/L, doctors take a glucose tolerance test. A patient is given 75 ml of glucose dissolved in a glass of water, and then the blood is taken out of vein in 2 hours to take the test.
If the glucose level exceeds 10,0 mmol/L after the test, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed. But even if the glucose level is lower than that index (within 7,8-11,0 mmol/L), a glucose tolerance disorder is diagnosed. This diagnose is called as prediabetes in the medical practice. It means that a patient has all preconditions to the development of diabetes mellitus any time soon, and it should be taken into account.
General Rules for Donating Blood for Sugar
Complete blood count is the easiest and effective way for the analysis of the glucose concentration. The blood is taken out of vein for more exact results. As the glucose level in the blood may vary within a day, there are general rules for donating blood when the maximally exact result is achieved. The non-observance of these rules may alter the clinical pattern and lead to a wrong establishing diagnosis.
- The test should be taken on an empty stomach, after awakening.
- At least 8 hours should pass after the last eating. 10-12 hours will be better.
- Only clear or mineral water may be taken within 8-10 hours before the test. Do not take coffee, milk, juices, fizzy drinks, and others.
- Alcohol increases the sugar level, and therefore do not consume alcohol within 2 days before the test.
- At least 4 hours should pass after the last smoked cigarette. Smoking also causes the increase of the glucose level in the blood.
- Refrain from the physical exercises within a day before taking the test. This also includes sexual activity.
- Do not take the test after therapeutic procedures (massage, R-control, physiotherapy, and others).
- Stress increases the sugar level in the blood. So if you had a severe stress, anxiety, or concern before the test, it may change the result.
It is pointless to take the blood test during infectious or viral disease. The body takes all measures to fight bacteria, so that the sugar level will be high.
If a patient takes any medications that may influence on the glucose level in the blood, inform a doctor who takes the test or will carry out an expertise.
Symptomatic of Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
A symptomatic of diabetes mellitus appears regardless of its type. The cells stop taking out the energy from glucose, and the ingredient is accumulated in the blood unsplit. However, the symptomatic of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 slightly differs.
First, an excessive concentration of the glucose in the blood is an index of diabetes mellitus.
In case of diabetes type 1, the symptoms develop quickly, and a patient often has a decrease of the body mass during the unchanged diet. Moreover, patients experience sleepiness, fatigue, weakness, thirst, and dry mouth. The frequent urination distract from the important things.
In case of diabetes type 2, the symptoms are developed slowly and the disease may be silent for a long period. The peculiar symptoms of the high sugar level are dry mouth, thirst, numbness of limbs, dry skin, and skin itching. Moreover, the increase of the body mass is observed during diabetes type 2 by means of the increased fatty tissue both in men and women.
Many patients who have a high sugar level in the blood state that they have sweet flavor in the mouth, and they can have 5 liters of water a day and still be thirsty. It is the main and the first sign that the sugar level in the blood grows and the body tries to dilute the thick blood with water and regulate the glucose level naturally.
Knowing the symptoms of diabetes mellitus will help you to use a qualified aid in time and avoid serious complications. The most important is to pay attention how you feel and take the blood test at least once per 6 months.
What to Do if the Sugar and Cholesterol Levels in the Blood are Increased?
Cholesterol as well as glucose takes part in many metabolic processes, provides the cells of the body with the energy. However, as with glucose, the high level of cholesterol leads to the severe complications including atherosclerosis.
A normal level of cholesterol is within 3,6-5,2 mmol/L. If the level of cholesterol and glucose goes up, the first thing a patient should do is to change a dietary regimen. Glucose and cholesterol reach the body with food and is synthesized by the internal organs. The level of glucose and cholesterol goes up during a great consumption of the animal fats and fast carbohydrates.
The main idea of the nutrition during the high level of the glucose and cholesterol is to reduce an amount of the carbohydrates and do it by means of the fast carbs. The fast carbohydrates are mono- and disaccharides that lead to a sudden increase of the sugar level in the blood. Due to the reduced consumption of food rich in carbohydrates and animal fats, it is possible to reduce the supply of glucose and cholesterol outside the body, and so the body regulates their indices in the blood. This process may be accelerated by means of the physical activity.
And if diet and physical activity does not help to stop the increase of the cholesterol and glucose level, it is recommended to use the pharmaceutical methods of the treatment.
How to Reduce Sugar and Cholesterol Levels? Metformin for Low Blood Sugar
To reduce the level of glucose and cholesterol in the blood during the ineffective non-pharmaceutical methods, a patient is prescribed hypoglycemic products that influence on a production of insulin, or increase a sensitivity of the tissues to insulin. A prescription of the medical product depends on a type of diabetes mellitus and the disease severity.
There are peroral types of the drugs (Glibenclamide, Glucophage, Metformin) and injectable (insulin). Each of these medications have an individual mechanism of the action and acts differently on the reduction of the glucose and cholesterol level.
Glibenclamide is a hypoglycemic product which lowers the level of glucose in the blood by means of the stimulation of the insulin production by the pancreatic gland. It is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2, degree 2-3. It restores the physiological sensitivity of beta-cells to glycaemia. It increases the effect of the endogenous and exogenous insulin by means of the increased number of receptors sensitivity to this hormone. Due to this, Glibenclamide may be taken as a combined therapy with insulin, as an additional product.
Glucophage contains Metformin and is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Unlike previous drug, Glucophage does not influence on the insulin synthesis and acts by means of slowing the glucose synthesis in the liver. This way, the level of the endogenous glucose drops, and it is possible to reduce the supply of glucose due to the diet. It is used during the second-third degree of diabetes mellitus, and in the combined therapy with insulin.
Today, Metformin is one of the most effective medications for the treatment of pancreatic diabetes in people with the obesity. It lowers the glucose level in the blood, reduces a concentration of the cholesterol level and LDL in the blood serum, favors a decrease of the body mass by means of the fatty tissue. It does not normally cause side effects because it increases the natural physiological processes in the body and does not cause a change of the hormone level.
Insulin is an exogenous type of the pancreatic gland hormone which is synthesized in the laboratories and is given to a person during the deficit of insulin hormone. It makes up the deficit of the hormone, and so it improves the transfer of the glucose to the cells. Nowadays, it is the most effective product on the market for the fast reduction of the sugar level in the blood. However, the drug has one drawback: a high risk of hypoglycemia. During the increase of insulin, a sudden drop of the glucose may happen, so that a patient will have an attack of hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is very important to take insulin in a minimal dose.
How to Maintain the Lipid Balance in the Norm?
The lipid exchange is a complicated biochemical process of the lipid metabolism, as a result of which the body cells are filled with the energy and receive all required nutritive ingredients.
To maintain the lipid balance, it is very important to not break this biochemical process. In other words, any stress for the body leads to the fact that the body tries to adjust the situation. It may be stress related to the mental concerns, or it may be stress related to alcohol or narcotic intoxication, or to the increase of the body mass. In all these cases, the body tries to maximally protect itself, so that the healthy lipid metabolism is affected. A human may have a high level of cholesterol, glucose, or other lipids in the blood.
Of course, trying to protect itself, the body causes changes which threaten the health. The high level of cholesterol and glucose leads to a serious affection of the blood vessels, so that chronic diseases are caused. Keeping the lipid balance is a task of every person.
Bad habits (alcohol, nicotine), fatty food, sedentary lifestyle, weak stress resistance are a stress for the body, and people do not even notice how they harm their health.
Such common things as sports, balanced diet, fresh air, morning exercises, meditation, and others may seem weird for some people. Following simple rules, you will not know what diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis is.