- 1 What is Metformin? What does Metformin do for diabetes?
- 2 Metformin: mechanism of action. Effects of Metformin
- 3 Metformin uses other than diabetes. Metformin and PCOS. Metformin anti-aging.
- 4 Metformin contraindications. Best time to take Metformin
- 5 Metformin adverse effects. Is Metformin safe?
- 6 Metformin max dose. Normal dose of Metformin
- 7 Metformin price without insurance. Metformin in USA and Canada over-the-counter.
- 8 Metformin interactions with other drugs.
What is Metformin? What does Metformin do for diabetes?
Metformin is a highly effective medication for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. The drug is indicated for people who have a high body mass index, and it complicates the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
The drug does not prescribed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1, because it does not influence on the insulin level and is ineffective during the clinical cases which are related to the insulin deficit in the body.
Metformin was discovered in 1922, as the strongest representative of biguanide class. Biguanides are hypoglycemic ingredients that lower the glucose level in the blood by means of the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver. Metformin turned the strongest as well as less toxic in this group during the clinical studies. Due to this, in 1970, the drug became the main product to fight diabetes mellitus type 2 and an alternative to insulin.
The clinical studies of Metformin are still conducted, and due to these studies it has been proved that the medication not only adjusts the glucose level in the blood but also reduces the level of cholesterol, and reduces the excessive body mass by means of the improvement of the metabolic processes.
Metformin has been added to WHO model list of essential medicines, and it is one of the most popular medications all over the world to treat diabetes mellitus type 2.
Metformin: mechanism of action. Effects of Metformin
A main cause of diabetes mellitus type 2 is considered the increased gluconeogenesis (by 3 times faster than usually). Due to this, insulin is not able to transfer glucose to the tissue cells. A minor cause is considered a production of the resistance of the tissues to insulin, so that the cells do not interact with glucose well.
The pharmacological action of Metformin is aimed at the recovery of the normal process of gluconeogenesis. It slows down a production of glucose in the liver, and this way it lowers the glucose level in the blood plasma.
In addition to the inhibition of gluconeogenesis, Metformin increases a sensitivity of tissues to insulin in the liver, improves the peripheral glucose uptake. Due to this, the utilization of glucose is improved in the muscle fibers, and the process of the glucose split into energy is accelerated.
However, Metformin acts not only on the glucose synthesis but also on the degree of the glucose uptake coming with the food. It slows the absorption of the glucose from the gastro-intestinal tract increasing the utilization of the glucose in the intestine. Due to this, a part of glucose is not digested and is excreted.
The pharmacological action of Metformin begins after the first application. The maximal concentration in the blood is achieved in an hour. This ingredient is not accumulated in the body and is excreted through the kidneys within 24 hours after the use of a dose. Metformin does not have an accumulative effect and acts only at the moment of the drug use.
According to the results of the clinical studies, it is possible to lower the glucose level by minimum 20% in the blood due to Metformin.
Metformin is ineffective during diabetes mellitus type 1 because it does not influence on the functions of the pancreatic gland, does not increase the synthesis of insulin, and does not contain the synthetic insulin for better glucose transfer.
Metformin uses other than diabetes. Metformin and PCOS. Metformin anti-aging.
Metformin has successfully passed clinical studies and was approved by FDA and WHO to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. But it is not the only area of application of the drug.
- Metformin provides a positive effect on the blood coagulability, lowering the blood pressure during the arterial hypertension.
One of the symptoms of the complications during diabetes mellitus is a high blood pressure and a development of the chronic arterial hypertension. Scientists have proved that the use of Metformin lowers the risk of the development of this pathology, and patients may easily control the range of the blood pressure.
- Metformin lowers the level of triglyceride and cholesterol in the blood by means of restoring the affected lipid metabolism.
A lipid balance is an important component for the normal metabolism which is affected during diabetes mellitus. The increased level of triglyceride favors an accretion of cholesterol plaques on the walls of the blood vessels, and in combination with diabetes it leads to a serious affections of the blood vessel walls and a development of thrombus. Metformin improves a conductivity of the blood vessels, without having the vasodilatory properties.
The drug reduces the body mass by means of the insignificant reduction of appetite and a reduced absorption of glucose and carbohydrates in the gastro-intestinal tract. According to the results of the tests, it is achieved by means of the fatty tissue and an improvement of the transportation of the energetic components in the muscle fibers and cells of the brain. This way, heavy patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 receive a combined effect which helps to reduce a risk of the complications during diabetes.
One of the last studies of Metformin have brought new discoveries. A number of the nerve cells is significantly reduced in hippocampus (a part of the brain where new memories are formed) during Alzheimer’s disease. An experience shows that the use of 1000 mg of Metformin per day for people weighing 60 kg significantly improves an ability to create new memories.
- Metformin decreases the high level of enzymes of liver and may treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.
- Moreover, Metformin is regarded as one of the most effective drugs of the new generation for the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome because of which people often have a high resistance to insulin and a development of diabetes mellitus.
- According to the opinion of many scientists, Metformin is an undiscovered pill for ageing yet because it has many therapeutic properties that improve heart, blood vessels, reduce a risk of malignant tumors and improve the neurological functions. However, today it is just proves of scientists, and therefore tests have been actively conducted to confirm this theory.
Metformin contraindications. Best time to take Metformin
Most patients may take Metformin without any restrictions because it provides a soft pharmacological action and does not influence on the vital functions of the body.
However, there are pathological processes which may increase a risk of the development of lactic acidosis during the use of Metformin. Therefore, there are certain contraindications that are obligatory and every patient who takes this drug must know it.
Contraindications for the use of Metformin:
- Acute dysfunction of kidneys and renal failure;
- Acute alcohol intoxication;
- Diseases which increase a risk of myocardial infarction, and heart failure;
- Diabetic coma/precoma.
An interaction of beverage drinks with Metformin significantly increases a risk of the lactic acidosis development, and therefore it is not recommended to consume alcohol during the treatment.
The use of Metformin must be stopped 3-4 days before having a surgery.
In case of the acute infectious diseases, it is necessary to temporarily stop the use of Metformin.
According to the opinion of doctors, Metformin is not recommended during pregnancy. However, a decision about the treatment or a cancelation should be taken by a doctor according to the clinical pattern of a woman and a course of the pregnancy. Stop the use of the pills during lactation, or continue the treatment and refuse from the breast-feeding.
Metformin adverse effects. Is Metformin safe?
Metformin has a higher index of the pharmacological safety and a lower toxicity in comparison with other drugs in biguanide group. It is allowed patients at any age for the permanent use within 5 years and more. The negative side effects appear seldom during the use of Metformin, and are light. The main cause of the development of the side effects is an incorrect dose or a high sensitivity to the drug.
Patients may have the following symptoms within the first month of the use of Metformin:
- Nausea (it may appear during the use of the pill on an empty stomach);
- Metallic flavour in the mouth;
- Decrease/absence of appetite (it is one of the pharmacological properties of Metformin);
- Digestion disorder;
It is worth noting that Metformin excretes vitamin B12 from the body, therefore patients having the treatment on a regular basis may face a deficit of this vitamin. It is necessary to take the blood test regularly.
The only serious side effect may be lactic acidosis during the use of Metformin. In case of the high level of the lactic acid in the blood, it is necessary to have the symptomatic therapy and stop the treatment.
It is a negative reaction which is peculiar for all representatives of biuganide, even though Metformin causes this complication in by 5 times less cases than other medications in this group.
Metformin max dose. Normal dose of Metformin
- The Metformin pills are taken orally, 2 times per day, during meals.
- The interval between the use of the pills should be at least 8 hours.
- The initial daily dose of Metformin is 1000 mg: 1 pill of Metformin 500 mg in the morning, and 1 pill of Metformin 500 mg in the evening.
- A daily dose of Metformin may be increased on medical indications. The increase of the daily dose of Metformin is gradual, by 500 mg every week, or by 850 mg every 2 weeks.
- The maximal daily dose is 2 500 mg. Taking high doses, more than 1500 mg, it is good to divide the daily dose by 3 equal parts and it should be taken in the morning, afternoon, and evening.
- The dose should be adjusted in order to avoid the development of hypoglycemia during the combination of Metformin with insulin.
- The increase of the daily dose (more than 2500 mg) may cause the attack of the side effects.
Metformin price without insurance. Metformin in USA and Canada over-the-counter.
The cost of Metformin depends on suppliers and sales network where it is for sale. Large sales networks in the USA and Canada sell original Metformin online, under the trade name Glucophage.
If you want to buy Metformin in the online pharmacy, the insurance no needed!
At the offline pharmacies Metformin 500 mg minimal cost is $45 per 60 pills. However, the average cost of Metformin is higher on the market because a demand for the drug covers the offer.
More than 10,3% of population in the USA have diabetes mellitus type 2 and have to take 2 and more pills of Metformin 500 mg every day.
If we compare the city points of sale to online pharmacies, a benefit of the internet suppliers is obvious. A cost of Metformin starts from $0,37 per one pill in the online pharmacy, and it is by 2 times lower than in the city pharmacies.
Therefore, buying Metformin in an online pharmacy is much more profitable. In addition, you do not need insurance and a prescription from a doctor. It is very convenient and anonymous!
Metformin interactions with other drugs.
- A concentration of Metformin may be increased during the simultaneous use with Cimetidine because the latter slows its excretion by the kidneys. The daily dose of Metformin must be reduced during the simultaneous use of these medications.
- Cephalexin antibiotic also slows down the excretion of Metformin, so that it may be accumulated in the blood.
- Metformin is incompatible with ethanol because of the possible development of lactic acidosis.
- Drugs that reduce the hypoglycemic response of Metformin are glucocorticoids, oral birth control pills, hormones of thyroid gland, and thiazide diuretics. An insignificant increase of the Metformin dose may be required during the use of these drugs and the intensity of its hypoglycemic action must be controlled.
- Drugs that increase the effect of Metformin are MAO inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, salicylate, derivatives of sulfonylureas, and insulin.